top of page


Público·95 miembros

History Of Architecture By George Salvan Pdf Free Download

History Of Architecture By George Salvan Pdf Free Download >>

History Of Architecture By George Salvan Pdf Free Download

REVISED EDITION USEFll. REf1NC fOR! . fiRCHITECTORfiLTHEORIESOFDESIGN BY:CiORGE:S. Slll.\JIIN INTERIOR.DESIGNEJ!SARCHITECTURAL THEORY OFDESIGN THENEW LADDER TYPECURRICULUM GEORGESALINDA SALVAN... fuap ASSISTANT PROFESSOR College of Engineeringand Architecture Baguio CollegesFoundation 1980-1988 First andlonegraduateof B.S.Architecture,1963 NorthofManila,St.LouisUniversityBaguioCity Former instructor 1965-1969at St.louis University Recipient of various ACEcertificates,Architects Continuing EducationProgramAlicensedArchitect,active practitioner and a licensedbuildingconstructor,inventor and a boardtopnotcher. PastpresidentofUnitedArchitectsPhils.BaguioChapter1982 and1983ElectedNationalDirector;UAP,RegionalDistrict. I for theyear1987.Conferredthe title of " FELLOW"United Architects Phils. College ofFellows,October,1988 JMCPRESSINC. 388 QuezonAvenue,QuezonCityPhilippine Copyright 1999 by: JMC PRESS,INC. and GEORGES. SALVANAll rights reserved. No part of this book may bein any mannerwithout permission of the publisher. FIRST EDITION,1986 SECONDEDITION,1993 THIRD EDITION,1999 ISBN:971 -11 -1 027-X Published andPrinted by: JMC PRESS, INC. 388 QuezonAvenue, Quezon CityTel.Nos.:410-9534 781-9187 Telefax: 712-4929 E-mail Address:[email protected] Distributed by: GOODWILLBOOKSTORE 388QuezonAvenue, Quezon City Tel.Nos.: 732-7433/36 410-6070 Fax No.: 741 -4289 E-mail Address: [email protected] Web Site: Dedicated to allfuture ArchitectsThe hope for a functional,comfortable andconvenient designs forbetter living. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Thecompletionof thisbookwas madeinto realitythroughthepatientandhardworking artist and graduate ofarchitecture, Mr. Jerry Jun Suyat who spent sleepless nights withthe illustrations and allof the layouts of the dummy. Specialthanks and mention is also acknowledged to the artists who made allthe illustrations notably,ClamorLecitona from NU, who alsopreparedthe cover,Johnny Camsol,Fermin Balangcod,Roy Pagador,ReyPuno,all from BCF andReesa AngelaPalaganasof SLU. To those who lentunselfishly their books,likeArchitectMikeCaluza,FeOespabil aderas,DeanAvelino Cruz of BCF, and to theBCF library through Ms. Macabiogfor understanding my late returnsof borrowed books. To Mr. LuisV.Canave who guided me on the complete process of publishing andprinting ofbooksandtoMr.FranciscoC.Malicsi,TeresitaG.Espinoza,EduardoC.VillanuevaandEnrico P.Gomez for t heir untiring cooperation in preparingthemanuscripts typewrittenby Thelmai. Villareal,in computerizedtypesetting. The many students of architecture whose curiosityabout andinterest inthe Theory of Designandits realizationin bookformhave beena sourceof inspiration. v PREFACE The practice ofArchitecture invol ves both the conceptionof an ideaand itsultimate expres-sion in building materials. The process ofdeveloping this idea to a point at which a sol ution of the problemat hand is reached is known as "Architectural Design". Design mustconcern itself with both the practical and the aesthetic.if theresulting structure is to be satisfactory to anindividual or acommunity,thetwo must always becombinedandnot separated. For sometime, students of architecture throughout the country have felt theneed for a book dealing with generalideas concerning the Theory ofDesign, a book that would be in every senseintroductory, definingthe various approaches.outlining the differenttechnicalprob-lems-and relating these two types of material to thecreative side of art as well as to its uses ineverydaylife.Contemporary principles are concerned with planning for human needsand are not confined to the field of architecture alone.Science,Sociology, andEconomics also contribute to be successful design ofa building.The Architect of Today must be conscious of thecharacter of present-daycultureanditseffectsuponthebuildingwhichhousetheactivitiesof thiscivilization.Hemust designinterms ofhisphysical and socialenvironment. Since.this author has been teaching the Theory ofDesign subject.way back in1965,there has oeen somanychanges,notably new products in plastics and glass which gave usnew conceptions of the extent of space,while the abili ty to heatandlight our interiors more effi -ciently hasimparted a differentquality to the shelters inwhichwe and rest.Alltheseinnovationstakentogetherhavemadepossibletheopen,flexibleplan,andthusarchitecture has changedin character. Realizing this fast growingchanges inArchitecturalDesign as seen in the forms,shapes andimageswhichrespondtoproject needs,theMinistry ofEducationincooperation with the United Architects Philippines met sometimein 1979 to revise the Architectural Curriculum to a 5-year stepladder course,andcameup with a more relevantsyllabus for The Theoryof ArchitecturalDesign.Scanningthe subject matters,the authorsrealizedthat not less than 30booksanddifferent topicsisneededforreferences.Thisisthereasonthatledtothe author'scompiling of notes to suit this new curriculum and infuse the newtopics involved. Majorityofthetopicsonarchitecturaldesignarebehavioralrelationsbetweenmanandbuilding,ecologicalinteractionsbetweenbuildingandnatureandtheroleofbuildingin man's perceptionof andorientationto the cityscape. VIIviii Briefly,the aims of this book are as follows:To outline anumber of approaches to Design (Physical,religious, symbolic,historical, etc.). To describe and characterize the differenttechniques or media in design with their respective limitations andadvantages;to conveyanideaofplanninganddesigningof theart objectandof thebuilding. Other pur-poses of this bookisto providepractitioners and students of designing andplanning with a reviewof thenew designmethods and with examples of each.It may alsobeofinterest to anyone outsidethedesignprofessions who isconcernedwithcreativebehaviour andwith technological change.Thechapters arearrangedin sequence,Part Iis for the first semesterwhich dealsmostly with forms and Part II is for the second semesterwhich deals with spaces. Each topic is sum-marizedinsuchamannerasto guide the instructor to finishanddiscussalltopics in thealloted timeof more than 40 hours per semester. LIST OFCONTENTS-PART ONE-(FORMS- TWO-DIMENSION) Chapter1INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECTURALDESIGN................. ..... .....1 GeneralInfluence, 2InfluenceofNature,3 Essentials of the Structure,18 Invisible Structure,18 VisibleStructure,19 Form,Surface,Texture, ToneandColor,61 Chapter2CHROMATIC ENERGY OF ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNPsychologicalEffectsofColor,70 Color as anExpressionElement ofDesign,74 69 Chapter3PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION..... ................................ .. ......79 Chapter ChapterContrast,86 ProportionandAntrhopometrics,94 Scale,125BalanceandGravitational Curves,129 Rhythm,138 UnityandHierarchy,142 Character,151 4PLAN COMPOSITION... ...... ............................................ ...... .159 Scheme,160Secondary Principles,162 5VISUAL AOUITY AND PERCEPTIONSpatialPerception,160 VisualorOptical Illusions.180 MonocularCuestoDepth,189 165 Chapter6CONCEPTUALIZATION TECHNIQUES OFDESIGN...............197 ArchitecturalConcepts,198 Creativity,205Methodology' 210 Chapter7FUNCTIONAL GROUPING AND ZONING............. ........... .....215 Horizontal Disposition,216Activity Analysis .andLinkages,2Z7 ix -PARTTWO-(SPACES-THREE-DIMENSION) Chapter8SPACE ARTICULAnON...... ...... . ......... .. .. ...... ..................... ....233 The Concept ofSpace,234 The Process of Space Organization,242SpatialQualities,243 Space to Space Relationships,245 SpatialOrganization,251 SpaceArticulation,265 KinestheticQualities ofSpace,275Chapter9GEOMETRY.............................................. ...... ........ .. ...............28 Appearance of theStructure,282Forms andImage, 284 Circulation-Movement ThroughSpace,286Stairs,299 Semantics,300 Signs,SignalsandSymbols,301VisualExpressionofFunction, 314VisualexpressionofMaterialProduction, 322 Chapter 10RESPONSE TOCONTEXT........ ..... . . . . . . . . . .... .. .. . . ...... ...... ... .. .. .. .327 The BuildingEnvelope, 328 EnergyandArchitecturalDesign,336 EnergyConsumptioninBuildings,336BuildingProcess,337 EnvironmentalPlanning,341 Site Selection,342Elements of Site Control,343 PassiveSolar Planning,348BuildingDesign,Configuration, 359 Chapter11ENCLOSURE............................. ............ .......... ........................371 Qualities of ArchitecturalSpace, -372Openings,Structure andEnclosingPlanes,373 Degreeof Enclosure,LightandViews,373 Chapter12SYSTEMS.. . .. .. .. .. ... .. . .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. ..387 X EnvironmentalConcepts andtheInterior,388Mechanical andElectricalSystems,388UserRequirementArchitecturalSystem,392 Handicapped Users,399Structural andEngeneering Concepts,400 ConstructionMethodsandStructures as expressionof Architectura I Design, 411 Chapter13ECONOMIC .. ... .. .. .. . .................... .. . .................... ... ....... ......... ....435 TheCost of theBuildingStructures, 436 FirstCosts,436 MaintenanceRelatedDesign,437 ArchitecturalSafety,437 Building MaterialsasExpressionof Design,438 Honesty of Expression,438 Economy ofMaterials inDesign,439 VisualExpressionof Material,440 NewMaterials,447 Biotechture and the Nature of Materials,450Indigenous Materials,451 Chapter 14HUMAN FACTORS..................................................................457Socio-cultural Variables,458 PsychologicalConsiderations, 458PersonalSpace,460 Psychological andSocial Space,460Territoriality,464 PerceptualQuality of theDesignedEnvironment,465Human -Architectural Interfaces, 466 HumanNeeds,466Value,Aspiration andCulture,468 How ValueInfluence TheEnvironment,472 How Environment Influence Value,473 FolkBeliefsinArchitecture,475 Vernacular Architecture andlndiginousTechnology,478 FengShui,479 Bibliography,496 Index,497 xiINFLUENCESON ARCHITECTURALDESIGN 2 I.GENERAL INFLUENCES NEEDS OFMAN1.PHYSICAL NEEDS a.Selfpreservation.... Food,shelter,clothing-basicaddto thisbasicneeds: power,water,transportation,ecologicalbalance,education,sports,medical,livel ihood b.Reproduction-forthepopulationto increaseandcontinue in existence. SHELTEA . ..issomethingthatcovers,protects,ordefendsasaroofthatshields onefromthe elements andchanges. The modernman's shelter shalfhave:1.Necessiti es-warm,dryhousewithglazeddoors,windows,sanitationandpermanency. 2.Conveniences-roomsshallbearrangedeconomically.Circulationsare studiedaccordingtofunctions,suchast hekitchenforfoodpreparation, bedroom forsleepandbathroom for cleanliness. 3.Comforts -thismustcontainthelabor-savingdeviceswhichprovideheat,ventilation,andinstantcommunication.Thefurnishingsaredesignedforcomfort. 2.EMOTIONAL NEEDS The emotionalreactions ofman have to dowith h einstincts stirredby the forces of religion and artandwith the desire to indulge inrecreation. Artin its broadestinterpretation,assumes the various familiar formspainting,sculpture,music,lite-rature. 3.INTELLECTUAL NEEDS Education,scienceandgovernment,demandaproperarchitecturalsetting.In-tellect or reason alone mayerect a utilitarian building; emotion will endow itwith beautyandinterest. ACTIVITIES OF MAN Iflife isto existandcivilizationisto develop,there aref undamentalor desires'whichmustbesatisfied.Theseforcesmay becalledthe action.Theireffectupon life and architecture,may be designated asResultingManifestations:RM 1.Desire for Preservation -in obtainingfood, shelter, clothing and security, civilized rna n must havecommerce, government and religion. These activities call for theiraccom-panyingstructures,or architecture. 2.Desire for Recognition-thisisa desirefor prestige,pride andambition, social status,physicalsupremacy,intellectual attainment,personal or civic,resultin the-struggle for position. Asaresult,manbuildpalaces,skyscrapers,or communities may erectcathedrals orpublicbuildingsandmonuments. 3.Desire for Response-This arises from the gregarious nature of man, from his wish forlove,friendship,andsociability. Inseekingthecompanionship of hisfellow creatures,man congregates.His socialinstinctscallforfraternalbuildi f)QSandcityclubs.Hissemi-publicbuildingsmust containbanquethallsandballrooms;hishomemusthavealivingroomtomake human associationpossible. 4.Desire forSelf-Expression-This is the urge of man to as,serthimself as anindividual. Todothings inhisown parti cular way. Thisisresponsibleforaesthoticexpression;f orarchitectureinitshighestforrn,whicfiresultinbuildingof theatres,museums, etc.To show that he isthe in sports or recreation, encouraged the building of stadia,bowling alleys, gymnasiums, etc. II.INFLUENCES OFNATURE Climate andtopography influence the life and habits of a nation. They decidewhat foods shallbegrown andwhatoccupationsshallbefollowed.Theydetermine what regionswilldevelopfarmers, 88ilorsormerchants.Climateaidsingivingtoracestheirown particular traits.These racesin turn create architecture with local or nationalcharacteristics. A.CLIMATE Thisaffect thehabitsandtemperamentsofpeople.Thosenear theseaarequiet,taCiturn and bold people.Theyareeasy goingandcare-free and produceanarchitecture different frompeople in the cold and forested areas,whose .people plan inadvance. This requires in-itiative,patience and energy. Inthearctic,regions, civilization isless advanced asclimatic conditionsare so unprotective and absorb so much energy that the natives havelittle surplus with which to devek>p civiliza-tion or art. Inthe temperate zones,people are energetic and progress isassured.Here, man may plan and may realize his ambitions withoutinterference from droughts,blizzards,or tropicalf evers. 3 4 EFFECTON ARCHITECTURE WARMERCLIMATES Thebuildings rnaybemoreflamboyantintheirconceptionandusuallyacloserrela-tions existsbetween the worksof man and nature wherevegetationismore luxuriant, more attentionis paidto the color and tex-tureof surfacetreatment.Plainwallareasgiveanopportunityfor contrast with thecolorsof thefoliage. 1.PLANS WARMER CLIMATES The plans are more open and ofteninclude courts or patios. oPENCOURT ! [ \ \ BREt:ZE 2.STRUCTURALELEMENTS f COLDERCLIMATES The architecture is more severe and thede-signer dependlessuponthelandscapetorfinaleffect.Colorsareusuallymoresub dued. COLDERCLIMATES Morecompact in arrangement. The severe cold winds is avoided byproviding a cover from portion of the buildingto theother. Ill!Inthe past, walls were load bearing,wallthickness werethick,tocarry the load of the floors and the roof and also to resist theextremes of temperature and to protect man from his enemies. Today,modern manerectsstructuresto protect hisinvestment fromdepreciation andhimself fromthe curiosityof hisneighbors.Wallsareno longer bearing walls. They no longer carry loads asthin asthe material will permit. The development of in-sulation makesitpossibleto keep out the heat andthe cold ina highly satisfactorymanner. Loadisdi!triMedtothe beam 1 1 1 l I 1 I 1 l1 L i ... 5 v1-ttload carried bycolumns Thirtwall thin N a i l1 '7' Insulation3.PROTECTIVEELEMENTS The roof protects the interior fromtheelements of climate like typhoon, heat of the sun,etc.WARMERCLIMATE COLDER CLIMATES - Inthe Past-The roofs areusuallyrather flat and colour-ful.As in the rich red and brown tile roofof Italy. Theroofsbecome steeper andlesscolour-ful.The necessity ofshedding the rai n and snow makesthegreater pitch to the roofs morepractical . 5 6 I Entranceporchesare theresultof thedesireforprotection.Thedrivingrainsand coldwinds made these porches ade.sirable adjunct to the entrances. 00u00 0 -ModernDevelopments-However, with new inventions and innovations, steeland concrete construction. in-sulation,andmodern drainage makealmost any kindof utilitarianroof possible. The roof may be flateven incold countries andinvisible from the ground.The roof has nowbecome a terrace, and the accompanying fresh air and sunshinecontribute tothehealthof a nation. l -I I 4.CIRCULATORYELEMENTSWindows- permit the entrance of lightandcirculationof airDoors,9tairs,corridor-circulation of human traffic andmaterials -InthePast -WARMERCLIMATES Windows areusually smallinordernot toadmittoomuctlight,whichproducesex-cessiveheat andglare. warmCOLDERCll MATES Windows areusually large inorder tocap-ture thegreatest amount of light, andheat the interior. ----J \ \ cold-Modern-In the architecture of the 20th Century,there has ceasedtobethe relation between windows andclimatethat existedinthepast.Wecannow heat or coolourhouses in a satisfactory manner with lessreference to the sizesof openings and windows oftensimplycontribute to thecheerfulnessof the interior. In the last fewyears, there has come a new conception of hygienic and therapeuticpossibili-tiesof the window.Atype of glass has beendevek>pedwhich does not filter out the ultra-violet raysofthesunshine;asdoesordinary window glass. Man alsoinvented machinesfor air conditioning, heating, ventilating andthis machine agebrought about the suggestionof windowless buildings.5.DECORATIVEELEMENTS WARMERCLIMATES With brilliantsunshine,pronouncedmould-ings areunnecessary and undesirable. Whenmouldingsareused,thecurvesshouldbe f latter and more subtle. COLDERCLIMATES Sculpture andmouldings areusually deep-lycurvedandundercut to catchthemax-imum amountof light. 7 8 Color isa decorative element whichin warm countries assumesanimportancerivalingthat of carvings.Plainwallsurfacesinwhite orlightpasteltones,withtheirvarioustextures catch the sunlight andallow an interesting play of shadows from projecting roots andadjoin-ing trees.Colored tiles are also conspicuous in thearchitecture in the mediterranean coun-tries. B.TOPOGRAPHY Intheearliestperiodsofcivili zation,theelementsoftopography-mountains,deserts andseas-constitutedbarrierstomigration.Thisretardedtheinterminglingofpeopleandthe cross-fertilizationofcultures.Ideastraveledslowly,andthecustomsandattsofdifferentcountries assumeddefinite nationalpatterns. However, as navigationbecame more of a science, the seathat had been a barrier becameanaidto travelandcommunic_ation. Topography, in its broadest sense,may mean the general terrain or contour of the surface of theentire country. If the country is small and the topography isuniform, there tends to be a similarity of character in thearchitecture. It may be nationalistic and may assume traitscom-monto theentirearea . MOUNTAINREGIONS Ina settingof rocks andcliffs with violent changesin the directionof the contour of thesite, the building should appear to growoutofitssurroundings.Thebuildings should be 'informal'. The floorlevels of the major parts shouldfollow asfarasiscon-venient,theslopeoftheground.Ifitcrownsaneminence.itssteeproofswith verticaleffects may serveasafitting term-ination to a commandingheight. LEVELCOUN-TRY While anunsymmetrical or informal planis possible on such a site. 'Formal'or balanced scheme is moresatisfactory. sJopiHgsiteinfor-rna lity0000D LevelSiteFormality C.MATERIALS The gifts of nature for thestructures of man are limestone, marble, pine and mahogany, etc.(timber)clay for brick andore for metals. In the past, certainmaterials have had a local use and have influenced the developmentof an indigenous architecture.Since there was lack of methods ofconveyance. However, they have changed as new contacts were madeand asnew developments cameintoexistence.Ideaswereborrowed,commerceandindustrygrewandnowmoderntransportation has made buildingmaterials internationalindistribution and use. Ill.INFLUENCE OF MAN 1.SOCIAL CONDITIONS:Architecture, because it is the most permanent andcumulative-reflects the social structure of the periodin which itisdeveloped. The interests of the people dictate the type andap-pearance of its buildings. Stable government and improved socialcondition eliminate the necessity of many protective features suchas high fences, shutters, wrought iron or steel railings tor doorsaRd windows, broken glass and barbed wire on top of fences. Comfortand convenience now control archi-tecture. Example: 1.Periods...Thedifferentarchitecturalcharactersinthedifferentperiodsofar-chitecture is shown in the interests of man at that time asshownin their build ings. In this 20th Century, our social structure hasbecome so complex that confusion rather than simplicity is itschief characteristic.The automobile has made it pos-sible for us tolive many miles from our work but has created atraffic problem.Themovies,radio,t.v.andtransportationhavebroughtusknowledgeofforeigncountries.Standardization is more prevalentthanindividualism. 9 10Congestion,economicpressurerequiresproximity ofalliedfieldsofendeavor and adds to the problemsof the architect andcityplanner.This complexity of our socialsystemisreflectedinourarchitecture. 2.Man'sPersonality. By his appearance,somethingisknown of hisinterests from t hetypeof house inwhich helives.In asimilar manner,itis possible to tracea comparison betweenthepersonalityof anationasreflectedinitsclothinganditsattitudetowardarchitecturedSseeninitsbuildings.Clothesgiveanindicationofthe simplicity or complexity of the existence of its inhabitantswhich in turn controls the development of itsarchitecture. GREEK... .. .. .... ....... ...... ...... ...... .... .. .... .............. .................. DIGNITY Scholarly andphilosophicalrefinement was characteristic of the lives of people,wefindthecostumeconsistedof a simple, flowing robe.Muchattentionwas paid to the body and to physical health. The existence of theGreeks was reduc-edto the essentials,and this was reflected intheir dress and architecture. They did not build on a grand scale,but rather sought for purity of detail and develop-ment oftechnical skill. Ornatenessin dress had no placein their simplehere ac-tivities. FRENCHRENAISSANCE This was a period ofmultiplicity of detail in court life, in dress and inarchi-tecture. Social etiquette was so complicatedthat allnaturalness was aban-doned.Life was artificialandtheatrical.andlikewisethecostumesof the period. Powderedwigsandbrocadedcoats madecongruousthe jeweled canesandlace frills.Thefurniturewascolorful,but thechairswereoften straightanduncomfortable.All this splendor would have beeninappropri ateina simplesetting.Thearchitecture hadto beornate inordertohar-monizewith the activitieswhichithoused.Buildingswerecrowdedwithrococo details wl;lichhidstructurallinesandoftenpreventedtruth ofex-pression.Thiselaboratearchitecturelinedwideavenueslavishlydecoratedwithfountains and gardens-all designed for the purpose of beingostentatious. VICTORIANTheflowingwhiskers,beribbonedbonnets,mutton- legsleeves,andbustlesweresimply a reflectionof thejig-saw ornamentandsheet-metalcornicesof thebuildings ofthat period.Again,itwasanugly anddrabvariety,without the color of the FrenchRenaissance. CONTEMPORARYAlthoughpresent-daycivilizationis complex,we havebeenblessedwithsimple attire for both men and women. The dress of today isprobably due to the fact that the science of medicine and healthhas kept step with other developments,andourpeoplehavebeenimpressedwith the necessity offreshair,sunshine,andexercise.These were difficult to obtain underthe restrictionsof the19thC. The desire for freedom of movement andan interest in athletics is reflected in the contemporary movementin architecture,which,in seeking tointer-pret buildings in terms ofthe needs of the people,is placing the emphasis uponplainwallsurfaces. 11 CONTEMPOAAAV St.&Js1Is . Moscow,10TH0e11turyAlc::a zar, Gegovia.15TH 12 Ta.)Mal1al,Agr.a.11THamtury6o111icCatHedral.Reint, 17THcenrury Alr forceC l 1 a Colorado l90Z 3.Man's Interests. Ithasbeenpointedoutthattheactivitiesand.interestsofmanare directly responsible for the type ofarchitecture which he develops.This is showl'l inthetypicalstructures likethe house-which provides shelter formanduring his hours of rest. factory -offersa placeinwhi chtoworkandto produce acommodity of exchange. church- affords spiritualrelaxationand opportunity for worship. 1.HOUSE - in the past,housesweresmallandcompact,the hallwas usedasa workroom anddiningroom.When the scene changed from the farm to the city, wealth andservants, and large houses were easily maintained. This was the ageof pretense and show. Plans were complicated and of various sizes,shapes,disorganized and unrelated to human needs. This was theVictorian House The Contemporary house-is called a functionaltypeand one of comfort, There is a desire to take full advantage ofsunlight .and air. The walls are opened asmuchaspossible,andtheinteriorisrelatedto theexterior terracesandgardens in a pleasingmanner. Thus,the principle of comfort prevailsIn the 20thCentury designs. 13 14 2.FACTORY -intheearlydays,manoftenworkedathome,it wastheageof craftsmanship,theperiodof individual effort.Those who createdproducts required bytheir fellow men took pride in each article. Business was personalrather than impersonaL When the industrialperiodarrived,with thelast lialf of the19 century,the small shops grew into factories,and little thought was given to efficientar-rangementsorpleasantworkingconditions.Laborwasunorganizedwithfew windows,light and air was insufficient and theresult was gloomand in-effeciency. Thepresent century-an age of competition andmass production. There must be efficient operationin order tocompare favorably inprice and quality.Proper workingconditions havebeen outgrowth of this kind of business life, and as a result,well-planned factories and pleasant surroundings are often typicalof portions of our industrial cities. 3.CHURCH-in thepast,peopleworshippeddifferent godsandonly thepriests enter the temples. Theexterior then received more attention. Then thechris-tianreligionbuiltchurchestoholdcongregationtoparticipateinthe wor-shipping of God.For that reason the interior is in many respects more impor-tantthan the exterior. The medieaval churches was not only a place forworship but also a center of educationfor themasseswhocouldnotreador write.Thecarvingsandsculptureoftheexteriorandinteriorfurnishedachronologyofbiblicalevents. When the people learned socially to read and write,especially with theinven-tionoftheprintingpress,-sculpturebecame,insteadofthepictorial,astresseddecorativequality.Thepreachingtypeofchurchwasdeveloped,causinganauditorium,tobeincluded.Thiswasaparticipationofmentalratherthana physicalone. Modern churchesnow aredesignedtoprovidemental,physical,aswellas spiritualrelaxation.The modem churchhasnow classrooms for educational work,halls and parlors forsocialgatherings anda gymnasiumfor the exer-cise of the body. 0 0 "0000000.. 0 .. 0 ..000 _., u 0 0 0 0000 oj_ 0 0 .. " 0cont-emporarychurch forms 20thCENTURY ARCHITECTUREThepresentcenturyhasbroughtcountlessinventionsanddiscoveries.Oldstandardsof thought andliving havebeenmodified orabandoned.New activities havecalledfor struc-tures tohousethem,andnew materials andtypes of construction have made thesebuild-ings possible. a.TRANSPORTATION-made possiblethe carrying ofall kindof building materials fromoneendof the earthto the otherandhas createdstructures unknowna fewgenerationsago.Theautomobilehasmadenecessarythegarages,fillingstations, and bus terminals. It has rendered almost obsolete ournarrow streets designed for the horse and buggy. The airplane hasbrought about the develop-ment of airports,while new types ofsteamships withincreased tonnagehavegivenaddedimportancetodocksandwarehouse.Theexpansionoftherailroadshascreatedthemagnificent passengerandfreightterminalsandhas madepossible our largein.distrialcenters. b.COMMERCE-large,complexandtallerbuildingsareconstructedto housethe newbusiness activities likebanking,finance,etc. c.EDUCATION-withmasseducation,schoolsandcollegesarescientificallyplanned,andtheir functions arenumerous andinvolved. The newspaperis also a powerful agency in the attempt to keep peopleinform-eduponthecurrentaffairsofthenations,andlibrariesandmuseumsofferunlimitedfacilities to those who wouldreadandstudy. In the past,museums were designed to resemble palaces with little thought tothe education andcomfort of the public.The modern museum isdesignedto display the art of the past and the present in orderthat it may be studied and ap-pliedto contemporary needs.Simplicityof arrangement, satisfactory lighting, andeaseof circulationareprimaryrequirements. d.REHABILITATION-labor-savingdevices have brought about time for leisure andtheneedforrecreation.Thereisauniversalinterestinsportsandentertain-ment,bothbyspectatorsandparticipants.Asa result,we havetheatres and dancehalls,arenas,ballparks,golf andcity clubs. 15 16 ECONOMICCONDITIONS: The social life of a nation and the resultingarchitecture are linked closely with the economic conditions underwhich people live. The nature of trade, commerce,industry andagriculture determines to a large extent the occupations andstandards of living within a particular coun-try.Thesefactorsinfluence the types of buildings erected and the materialsused. As nations modify their basic economic institutions throughchanges in manufacture, trans-portation, and communication, newmodes of living come into existence, and new architec-ture mustbedevelopedto conformto these customs.We areinterested,therefore,in the economic status of individuals astheyconstitute a nation, and not in their private finances. We are alsointerested in economy in architecture.Buildings may be so designedthat thete is economy of space, of movement, and of materials.These factors control to a large extent thecostofanarchitecturalproject. During the present century theconcentration of wealth in our cities has been responsible for ourattitude toward certain types of architecture. Investments rule ourlives, and the process of building must lend an attentive earto thecaprices of finance. We erect structures many stories in height,but mechanical devices render them obsolete in a few years and theymust make way for those with later developments. True economy inarchitecture is not using inte-rior materials but the omission ofuseless decoration and the inclusion of sensible planning. Man'seconomic system remained unchanged for centuries-until the presentindustrial age. Previous to this age of machinery, power and energywere supplied by the hands of man or the backs toanimals.Production was relatively slow, and the hours of labor werelong. Now electrical or steam power is furnished in almostunlimited quantities,releasingman from the machine and creating neweconomic and social problems. Man can now work less and pro-ducemore. Thefuture promises shorter hoursof labor andlonger hours ofleisure.This increasein lei-sure suggests a changed mode of living,It will promote the erection of those buildings which have to dowith recreation. relaxation and education. More time will bedevoted to the reha-bilitation of themind andbody.Thispossiblechange in our economic structure may thus, have aprofound effect upon our sociallife andour architecture. APREVIEWOF THECOMING OF THE 21st CENTURY At this time, man has alreadyreached the moon, our transportation a sbrought us to space.Manhasdevelopedcomputers to solvein aninstant what hasbeensolvedinthepast for hours,daysor evenmonths.New an.dsynthetic materialsarebeingdiscoveredanddeve-loped in a fast pace. Thereby making thedesigns of our building more comfortable, and now comes skyscrapersthat are built higher and higher. Intheinitialstages of thecomputers, man feeds information based from the clients needs, anda schematicsketchcomes out of the computer.This can thenbe fedbackto forma massingor a perspective.It can evenbe manipulatedtoshow the shadesandshadowsat selected different times of the day.Inanother proble!T', for a subdivision planning, showing the contoursof the lot, the computer can show the. differentviews.altogether.Other func-tions which it can do are showing theweak spots in a design for structural parts .of a building for thestructural designer's guidance. The computer can also store withits software all data onmaterials,specifications,management,schedulings and so many otherinformation that canaidthe designertoproduceabetter,fasterandmoreaccurate solutionsto designs. FUTUREHOMEbyElizabeth Pennisi ForPortiaIsaacson,acomputerscientist,futurehomeisa fantasycometrue.The white, twostorey,stucco,suburbanDallashome,willbe anelectronic showcase,butwith spiral staircase,hot tub, art gallery and style. A quick callto-or from-a computer ensures that her hot tub will be warm whenshe arrives or informs her when her teenaged children havegot-tenhome from school.If a business meeting keeps herfromgettinghome intime for herhusband'sbirthday,acomputercontrolledscenario,completewithlovingmessages,ro-manticlighting, favorite music and appropriate videos, willlet him knowhe hasn't beenfor-gotten. Answeringthe door isobsolete.Acamerashowswho it is by sending a close-up view of newcomerstowhereverIsaacsonis inthehouse. Thenshecanopenthe door remotely.Can't find the keys or the husband Vi a video camerasshecanscanshelftops and tablesur-faces.Motioncensorstrackeachperson'sroom-to-roommovements. Itwilltake 13 computers,14 telephones,26 tv monitors,8 miles(13kml ofwiring,several videocasetterecordersfor thisfuturehome.Isaacsonhasrobotsforpets,a sculptureof stereo and videocomponents that seem to float in space, futuristic plant standsthat are real-ly computer terminals, and a media" commandcenter",that includes four (4)25-inch(60 em.) tv's,a40-inch(100em.)tvprojectionscreen,2VCFS,andcompact andlaserdisc players. Atfuturehome,a master computer isin charge. It receivesdatafromtherestof thehouse andsendsout commands,dimminglights,changingthermostat setting, andswitching tvchannelsandvolumes.Usingatext-to-speechconverter,thecomputercananswerandmake telephone calls.When someone- a housekeeper or tardy teenager,for instance pun-ches intheir individualized codes to get into thefront door, the computer can be cued to let Isaacsonknow,eitherwheresheisinthe homeoratwork. It can tell the condition of thehouse,not only can lights or favorite music be turned on as apersonenters a room,a synthesized voicecanwelcome guests,remindasonto keephis feet off furniture or wake a husbandintime fordinner. Heatingandairconditioningareregul atedelectronically,andthe computer trackstempera-turesineachroomsothatthenewoccupantscanassessairflowthroughoutthehouse. Once computerized, the entire house can be run from anyone of 10 personal computers by pointing with .a light pen to aparticular room pictured on the screen, and designating a task tobe completed:lights onor off, specificmusic to beplayed,tvshowtoberecorded.Or"scripts"canbewrittenthatcoordinateactivitiesforemergencies,normalhouseholdmaintenance, even family tends to take care of intruders, asecurity script:If a security sen-sor detects a break-in,thecomputer could be programmedto flash allthe lights,blast thestereos,wakeup andtellthe residents wherethe strangerislurking,perhaps even inform the burglars that theyarebeingfilmed. TheInterior looks likethe tv seriesStarTrek.Instead of a wall-sizedpainting,anelec-tronic sculpturewelcome visitors. THe black components of an audio ahd videosystems are set into a glosSy, black metal wall on shelves notvisible to viewers.Recessedlighting along thewalledges adds to theeffect. 'SMART HOUSES' OF THEFUTURE (Turn to page456) 17 18THEPRINCIPLESOFDESIGN ESSENTIALS OF THE STRUCTUREThevariousperiodsof historic developments haveleft to thisagebuildings which may be identified astemples,cathedrals,factories andbungalows.These have been built tohouse theactivities of man,andto these structures has been giventhenameof architecture. Architecture may be a group of buildings or aprofession.The term"architecture" isanin elusive may referto the process of designing a building and supervising itserection. It may also beregarded as the procedure assisted with theconception of an ideaand its realiza-tion in terms of buildingmaterials. Architecture is representedby a building which meets ina satisfactory manner the require ments of logical function, soundconstruction. and beautiful composition. It is only when allofthesequalitiesarepresentthatgoodarchitecturecanbesaidtoexist.Initsbroaderaspects,architecture is shelter,not only for man during the varioushours of his daily exist-ence-work, recreation andsleep-but alsotoprotect allthe activities of human race. Manbegins to createshelter by surrounding space with the materials provided by natureand made usable by the ingenuity of civilizedpeopl es.Space,initself isindefinable andintangi-bleandhasnolimits.Yetwhenit isenclosedwithstone andsteelaccordingto acceptedrules of composition.the resultmay be called" architecture". Inproviding shelter it is to be observed that buildings have wallsand roofs, doors and wind-ows, and that these elements areassembledin a simple or complexmanner. Whatever the type orcharacter of the building, parts of it are more evident to theobserver thanothers-theexteriorismorereadilyseenandunderstoodthanisthearrangementoftherooms,which is called the plan. Thus, there exist the invisible andvisible structures, or the plan pat-ternand the apparent volume.THEINVISIBLE STRUCTURE Theplanis the b e i n n i n gof abuilding.It is the foundationupon whichthe scheme of the structurerests.It relates the various units to each other.It is the mostimportant element of volumeandshouldreceiveearlyconsideration.wheneverthesolutionof aproblemisat-tempted. "We should proceed fromwithin to without" from a satisfactory arrangement of the planunitstothe enclosing of these units by the shell whichis calledtheexterior. fi"ott1WithintoWiii1out THEVISIBLE STRUCTURE By enclosingspace,volume or mass is created.If this space has. no relation tothe activities of man, there exist only the simple geometric formsof the cube, the pyramid or the sphere. If the surfaces of thesevol umes and the enclosed interiors are treated so that the formsare related to human needs, then they may be regarded asarchitecture. Visible structure is com-posedof formandsurfaceasfollows: 1.FORM MASS or volumeorevidenceofthe3dimension direction -verticalorhorizontalaxisofthemass shape-geometricqualities 2.SURFACE AREA - surface with twodimensionsasina facadeof abuilding texture- surface treatmentidentified with materials whether rough or smooth tone -lightandshadecausedby openings,projections color - inherent orappliedcolorcausedby spectrumhues FORM In an architecturaldiscussion the accepted definition of form deals with shape andwhen the figure is three dimensional,it becomesmass. Inarchitectural composition, mass is more important than surface.Inthe designof a build-ing, "we should proceed from the general tothe particular". from mass to detail. The approach to designshouldnot bethroughthe details of a style but ratherthrough aconsi-deration of the mass of the building whi ch grows out of thefunction for which it is planned. Ge11eral (Ma% part-iculai roofwlrtdows doors walls detai ls MASS canbevigorousor weak;itcanhavevitality andstrength,or it may be indecisive and faltering.If it is correctly composed in an arresting manner, mass alone willarouse a de-finite emotionalreaction.It willstimulatethe observerwiththesense of itscompleteness. Ornament shouldsimplyenhanceabuilding . tn order that mass may be decisive, it should bedirectional. It should be either'horizontalor vertical.! \ Inarchitecture massisusually volume, andthe surfaces whichenclosespacehave area. 19 Horizot1ta\ 'lerticalSimplerectsngulartnaS$ Ma JOI a11dtwo111i11orhorizo11tal$011tl1ece11treut1it) 20 Domirtat1tverticalwithl1orJzo11taiGMajorHorizontal, Twomajor'lerticats Twot11i11orhorizontals.(ThiStreaksup t11epurelyhorizontalquali-tyof the compositiott)Major andrt1it1orhori-zontalScomt:Jined withadominantver-ticalMajorandmittorve::.tjcals VOLUME; Aplaneextendedin adirectionotherthanits intrinsicdirectionbecomes a volume.Con-ceptually, a volumehas three dimensions: length, width and depth. All volumes canbeana-lyzed andunderstood to consist of: 21 22 - solid lvertices)whereseveral plat1escometogether: - - - - -planes(surfaces)tttelimitsor -lines bour1dariesof avolume.(edges)wheretwoplanes meeT. a v o l m ecan either be solid,spacedisplaced by mass, or VOJd,space containedor enclosedby planes.(voidspace) FORMis the primary identifying characteristic of avolume,it is determined by the shapes andinterrelationships of theplanesthat describethe boundariesof the volume. 1.VISUAL PROPERTIESOFFORM a.Shape:Theprincipal identifying characteristic of form;shape results from the specific configuration of a form's surfacesand edges. formof .atree circularlt1shape b.Size: c.Color :light 0 D 0 Since our perception of a plane's shape is distorted inperspective, we seethe true shapeof a planeonly whenwe view iffrontally. Therealdimensionsofform,itslength,widthanddepth;whilethesedimensionsdeterminethe proportionsof a form,its scaleisdeterminedby its sizerelative to other formsin its context. Thehue,intensity,andtotal value of a form's surface;coloris theattributethatmostclearlydistinguishesaformfromitsenviron-ment.Italsoaffectsthevisualweight of a form. darker dark 23 D d.Texture:e.Position: The surface characteristic of a form; texture affectsboth tattile and light-reflective qualities of a form's surfaces.Aform'slocationrelative to itsenvironment orvisualfield. leftsideofariver,leftsideof t+teroad.rtgl1tsideof a tree.frontoFahotel.Backof awarehouse. 24 atthetJac kcf thewarehouseTREIOS f.Orientation: OBJECT .leftsideoftheroad, 20 ttlawayinFrontof thehotel leftsideor therNer orrightsideof tHetreesort'eforethebuildingorwelcomesigt1 Aform's position relativeto theground plane, the compass points or to theperson viewingthe form.ThecardinalpointsNESW havesinceremotetimesbeengiven primeimportance amongthe factors determiningthestructureof the world.The word orientation comes from"orient" the direction of sunrise.Christian churches were always oriented by the altar to-wards theEast. The East asthe origin of light is also the source of life.The west as the place Qfthe setting sun is filled with alltheter-rors of the earth. NORm AMIANAN- I O C A N O HllA6A- TA6AL06WESTEAST - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -LAUD-ILOCAHOC\4YA- lLOCANO I / / I I I / / _....-...... , "\ \ I1 _L_LiTheCircle ----__ .... / / / CircieandSguare Thecircleandsquarehavebeenfoundtopossesscertainpropertieswhichrecommendthem as a baseuponwhich to begina design. See figureabove.It willbenoticedthat the diagonals passthroughimportant parts inthecomposition. RELATIONS: Oneof the mostimportantphases of proportionandone which should be consideredin the development of a facadeisthe relat ion of the solidsto the voids,of the wallsurfaces tothe openings.It isnecessary that one clearly dominate theother thatthe elementof a contrast will be present.If there is a similaritybetween the width of the windc;,ws andthe spacesbet-ween,indecisionorcompetitionwillexist. In classical,Romanesque,andRenaissance buildings,whereheavy stone constructi onpre-dominates.Thewindows anddoorsusuall yoccupy aminorportion ofthefacadeandthe wallsurfaces are quitedominant. When the Gothicbuilders learned the art and science of transmitting t he thrust orweight of the vaults to isolated buttresses.the walls of thecathedrais became unimportant. Large areas of stained glass tookthe place of thesewalls, and regularly spacedpiers carriedthe loadof the roofandvaul ts. Incontemporaryarchitecture,the cantileverofconcreteandsteelf reesthedesigner from many restrictions ofmasonry and construction and there is a tendency to use openingsfree-ly. This15a ThtsISamore. c..ommon . 153554b96e

Acerca de

¡Bienvenido al grupo! Puedes conectarte con otros miembros, ...
bottom of page